Fourth Grade ESL

 Mr. Mamontoff - Piney Point E.S. - Houston ISD

Weathering, Erosion and Deposition

Weathering: The breaking down of rocks

Sediment: Broken down rocks

Erosion: The carrying away of sediment.

Transport: The carrrying of sediment.

Deposition: When the sediment is deposited or put down.

Destructive process: Process that wears down, or removes material. Erosion is a destructive process.

Constructive process: Process that makes greater or builds up material on the surface of the earth. Deposition and compression folding (mountain building) are constructive processes.

English - Spanish Glossary

English Spanish
weathering meteorización
sediment sedimento
transport transporte
deposition deposición
destructive process proceso destructivo
constructive process proceso constructivo

Spanish Translation 

Meteorización o desgaste: La rotura de rocas en pedazos ams pequeños

Sedimento: Pedazos de roca

Erosión: La salida y el transporte de sedimento hacia otro lugar.

Transporte: El transporte de sedimento.

Deposición: Cuando el sedimento es depositado (puesto) en otro lugar.

Proceso destructivo: Proceso que saca, disminuye, destruye. La erosión es un proceso destructivo.

Proceso constructivo: Proceso que aumenta material, agrega, hace crecer. La deposición es un proceso constructivo.

Examples of Erosion

Erosion by Water

The image shows valley formation due to erosion by water.

The image shows canyon formation due to erosion by water.

Beach eroded by wave action (water). 

Deposition by Water

Delta. Aerial photograph showing the deposition of reddish brown sediment. The sediemnt is carried by water and deposited forming a delta (group of islands) at the mouth of the river. The river flows from left to right. Note the sediment being carried into the sea (blue) on the right.

Beach. Aerial photograph showing the deposition of sand and gravel by water on a beach
in Great Britain (England).

Erosion by Ice

"U" shaped hanging valley formed by a glacier. 

"U" shaped valley formed by a glacier.

"U" shaped valley formed by a glacier.

Striations (linear marks) left by a glacier. The striations show the direction of movement of the ice.

Deposition by Ice

At the end of a glacier, there is an accumulation of material called a terminal moraine. The moraine is the material that was pushed and tranported by the glacier. Some moraines accumulate also on the sides of a glacier.

Diagram showing different types of moraines.

Lake and terminal moraine at the end of a glacier.

Terminal moraine

Terminal moraine.

Erosion by Wind

Sand particles carroed by teh wind cause the weathering or rock surfaces.

Sand, silt and clay particles experience creep, saltation or suspension depending on their gran size. A signifcant amount of weathering can occur close to the ground due saltation.

Wind erosion of rock. Note the weathering is more severe closer to the ground possibly due to saltation. 

Deposition by Wind

Wind can deposit sand creating sand dunes. The dunes can move. The diagram shows how a dune moves from left to right. Sand grains experience saltation to the top of the dune and then fall on the other side (avalanche). Over time, the dune moves. 

Other Earth Processes

The crust of the earth experiences pushing and pulling forces from the mantle below. Sometimes the rocks fold under great pressure. Sometimes they break creating faults.

The processes affecting the surface of the Earth may be classifies as either destructive or constructive. Destructive processes remove material from the surface and lower the leevation fo the surface. Constructive processes accumulate material and make the surface elevation higher. 

Destructive Processes (-)
(remove material)
Constructive Processes (+)
(accumulate material)
Weathering and erosion Deposition
Normal faulting, pulling the rocks apart Compression folding, mountain buidling
Subsidence or ground sinking Reverse faulting, pushing rocks on top of each other
Basin formation or ground sinking Vulcanism or volcano building


Folding or folds may occur when rocks are pushed together.

Classes of folds seen in rocks.

Chevron folds.


Faulting may occur when blocks of rock come apart due to pushing or pulling forces. The breaking or faulting generates a lot of energy in the form of an earthquake.

Fault after an eathquake. What other signs of an earthquake are visible in the photograph?


Normal Faulting

In a normal fault, the blocks are being pulled apart, so one block slides down the other.

In a normal fault, the blocks are being pulled apart, so one block slides down the other.

Reverse Faulting

In a reverse fault, the blocks are being pusged together, so one block is pushed up the side of the other.

Outcrop showing a reverse fault. The hammer is there for scale. 

Slip or Transform Fault

In a slip or transform fault, two blocks slide past each other.


Erosion flash cards and games on Quizlet

Experimental game


Erosion test on Quizlet

Additional Resources

Erosion on Wikipedia